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THE title of this book is perhaps somewhat misleading, for much the greater part of it is occupied by a clear and scholarly account of the general history of the.
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- How Greek Science Passed to the Arabs - De Lacy O'Leary - Google книги
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The Neoplatonists themselves traced their roots back to the semi-legendary Pythagoras 6 th century B. This school was much concerned with ratios and proportions they also uncovered the laws of musical harmony , and seem to have ascribed mystical properties to both numbers and geometrical figures. For the Pythagoreans, numbers and proportions took the place of the Gods. Plato was greatly influenced by these theories and adopted their belief that number and form were the keys to a deeper understanding of the universe.
He was also sympathetic to their perception of the gross material world as a place of corruption and illusion. He was deeply interested in geometry and clearly felt that its method, which produced clear and definite proofs, could be more generally applied. In the Platonic view the world of Forms or Ideas is separate and superior to our world of ordinary experience — and free of its illusions.
For Plato the truly beautiful could not be conveyed by any work of representation or imagination; at best these could only ever be conditionally beautiful. This movement originated in Alexandria in the 3 rd century A. It was eclectic and was influenced by Pythagoras, Aristotle and the Stoics as well as Plato.
How Greek Science Passed to the Arabs - De Lacy O'Leary - Google книги
In its later development it absorbed Jewish and Christian precepts. The main aim of its founder, Plotinus A. In this system, the lower, material levels of existence are a sort of overflow of the divine fullness. These, and later Neoplatonic speculations, exerted a considerable influence on Islamic philosophy, and on Islamic mysticism Sufism. In time, as they became more discriminating, Muslim scholars were able to separate out the older Classical philosophies from later accretions, and to make their own interpretations of this original material.
In the three or four centuries following the founding of Baghdad the Islamic world produced many outstanding philosophers, whose contributions were appreciated well beyond the Islamic sphere. Among the most important of these were — Al-Kindi d. Each of these was concerned to produce a version of Greek philosophy for Muslims, and each incorporated Platonic and Aristotelian concepts especially the latter in their philosophical systems.
As indicated above, they were also strongly influenced by Neoplatonic cosmological ideas. All of these philosophers were translated into Latin in the Middle-Ages, introducing Classical thought to the Christian West where it acted as a stimulus to philosophical and theological speculation. There were many other important individual philosophers in the Islamic world during the period of the Abbasid Caliphate, and various esoteric schools. In this Islamic setting, philosophical ideas were frequently bound up with those of religion and politics, which often meant that it was expedient for groups of like-minded scholars to come together in secretive associations.
Drawing on Pythagorean sources, they attempted to combine religion and philosophy in a unified world view. Following Pythagoras and Plato they saw numbers and proportions as the key to a deeper understanding of nature. William of Moerbeke was one of the most prolific and influential translators of Greek philosophical texts in the middle half of the thirteenth century. Very little is known of William's life. Most of his surviving work was done during Though William's contribution to the "recovery" of Aristotle , in the 13th century, was not as significant as is sometimes claimed, his work undoubtedly helped in forming a clearer picture of Greek philosophy, and particularly of Aristotle, than was given by the Arabic versions on which they had previously relied, and which had distorted or obscured the relation between Platonic and Aristotelian systems of philosophy.
According to a tradition originating in the later Middle Ages, William knew Thomas Aquinas and was commissioned by him to make some of the translations. But there is no contemporary record of the friendship or the commissions. If they did meet, it is most likely during the three or four years Aquinas was working at Orvieto , i.
His translation of De motu animalium is cited by Thomas in Summa Contra Gentiles , probably completed in Arabic logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant. Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Spain and Sicily , which became important centers for this transmission of ideas. Western Arabic translations of Greek works found in Iberia and Sicily originates in the Greek sources preserved by the Byzantines.
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These transmissions to the Arab West took place in two main stages. The first period of transmission during 8th and 9th centuries was preceded by a period of conquest, as Arabs took control of previously Hellenized areas such as Egypt and the Levant in the 7th century. Translators had to seek out wealthy business patrons rather than religious ones. Most knowledge of Greek during Umayyad rule was gained from those scholars of Greek who remained from the Byzantine period, rather than through widespread translation and dissemination of texts.
A few scholars argue that translation was more widespread than is thought during this period, but theirs remains the minority view.
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The main period of translation was during Abbasid rule. Al-Mansur ordered this rich fund of world literature translated into Arabic. Under al-Mansur and by his orders, translations were made from Greek, Syriac, and Persian, the Syriac and Persian books being themselves translations from Greek or Sanskrit. These new lines of thought allowed the work of amassing and translating Greek ideas to expand as it never before had. The Caliph al-Mansur was the patron who did most to attract the Nestorian physicians to the city of Baghdad which he had founded, and he was also a prince who did much to encourage those who set themselves to prepare Arabic translations of Greek, Syriac, and Persian works.
Still more important was the patronage given by the Caliph al-Ma'mun , who in A. His medical treatise on "Fevers" was long in repute and was afterwards translated into Latin and into Hebrew. The most important work of the academy however was done by Yahya's pupils and successors, especially Abu Zayd Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi d. After studying at Baghdad under Yahya he visited Alexandria and returned, not only with the training given at what was then the first medical school, but with a good knowledge of Greek which he employed in making translations in Syriac and Arabic.
Later the Caliph al-Mamun also sent emissaries to the Byzantines to gather Greek manuscripts for his new university, making it a center for Greek translation work in the Arab world. Most scholars agree that during this period rhetoric, poetry, histories, and dramas were not translated into Arabic, since they were viewed as serving political ends which were not to be sought after in Arab states. Instead, philosophical and scientific works were almost the entire focus of translation.
This has been disputed by a minority of scholars, however, who argue that stories such as the Arabian Nights carry clear parallels to Greek literature—evidence that many Arabs were familiar with Greek humanities more than is thought. Al-Kindi Alkindus , a famous logician and prominent figure in the House of Wisdom, is unanimously hailed as the "father of Islamic or Arabic philosophy ". His synthesis of Greek philosophy with Islamic beliefs met with much opposition, and at one point he was flogged by those opposed to his ideas. He argued that one could accept the Koran and other sacred texts, and work from that point to determine truth.
Whenever he ran into an impasse , he would abandon the Greek ideas in favor of the Islamic faith. Belief in it is a necessity, and raising questions regarding it is a heresy. Unlike Al-Kindi or Al-Rhazi, Al-Farabi was hesitant to express his own feelings on issues of religion and philosophy, choosing rather to speak only through the words of the various philosophies he came across.
Decades after Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina Avicenna compiled the ideas of many Muslim philosophers of the previous centuries and established a new school which is known as Avicennism.
Theologians such as Al-Ghazali argued that many realms of logic only worked in theory, not in reality. By , when philosophy was again revived in the Islamic world , Al-Kindi and Al-Farabi were no longer remembered, while Ibn Sina's compilation work still was. While Greek ideas gradually permeated the Islamic world, Muslims conquests extended to the European continent.
By Sicily was conquered. With the aid of Greek and other ideas, Spain in particular quickly became the most heavily populated and thriving area in Europe. Washington Irving. Decisive Moments in the Histor. Muhammad Abdullah En How Greek Science Passed to Ar. About us Contact Us History. Wholesale FAQs. Become a Distributor Wholesale.
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